A monument of importance as to the Macedonian burial architecture, the tomb was uncovered at Agios Athanasios, under the large tumulus to the east of the settlement, in the Thessaloniki metropolitan area. Along the east gradient of the tumulus are two non-pillaged cist graves; their investigation offers interesting evidence on the social rank of the defunct and on the burial habits of the time. At the centre of the enormous tumulus, 12m down its peak, is the small single-chambered Macedonian tomb, robbed but richly decorated with murals preserved in excellent condition featuring surprising colours. This exceptional monument is dated to the last quarter of the fourth century BC.
The face of the tomb is entirely painted. The ornate triangle of the pediment presents mythical griffons with all-golden wings, followed by dark-blue triglyphs and white metopes, while the narrow frieze above the entrance narrates a symposium scene, so familiar in literature or on painted vases, yet for the first time so lively represented before the eyes of the visitors. At the centre, six wreathed symposium participants lying languidly on anaklintra (couches) enjoy delicious dishes, guitar and diaulos music performed by young women, while men on foot and on horseback make haste to join them. Some hoplites in Macedonian costume, relaxing on their spears and the characteristic resplendent bucklers, are watching calmly. A moving representation depicts two full-length young men wrapped in long chlamyses standing sorrowful next to the tomb's entrance, eternal guards of their dead fellow warrior. This is undoubtedly the grave of a renowned Macedonian military, to judge from the remains of real armour found in the burial chamber which was nearly destroyed by antiquity looters.
The monument was uncovered in the spring of 1994, during the long excavation conducted by the sixteenth Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities at the large tumulus in Agios Athanasios settlement.
A place of universal interest, the ruins of Aristotle's School, is a found only 2 kilometers away from the contemporary Naoussa, at the district of Isvoria Here is the place with the racing water and the deeply-shaded caves, mentioned by the ancient writers, where the greatest philosopher of the antiquity taught the greatness of classical Greek thought and the ideals of the Platonic philosophy to the King's of Macedonia, Phillip II, son, Alexander and the other nobles of the Macedonian court. The encounter of these two Great personalities of the ancient world at the Nympheon of Mieza would definitely affect the future of mankind, and of all Western Civilization.
The area of the Nympheon, that is the sanctuary dedicated to the Nymphs, is a very impressive natural landscape, where the ancient remnants - a wall prop of a two-floored arcade with Ionic columns forming a Π- combined with the three natural caves which are found there, constitute the main grounds of the School. The vertical surface of the rock, where the openings for supporting the roof's girders are discernable, comprised the back-end of the shady stoa, (built at 350 B.C. and later), where Aristotle taught «the doctrines of morals and politics" (Plutarch VII, 668) to the youths of the Macedonian Nobility. The landscape, where the Great Teacher rambled with his students on the fully vegetation riverbank trails, among calm and cool streams of water, gushed from the springs around, is completed by an even greater cave, a little further off, with two carved entrances, obviously for devotional use.
The Museum of the Macedonian Struggle has perhaps the richest of all collections of relics and documents from the period of the Macedonian Struggle. Some of these items form part of the Museum's permanent collection, while others remain in the Research Centre for Macedonian History and Documentation (KEMIT) or in store for use after the reconfiguration of the Museum's exhibition space.
Museum for the Macedonian Struggle 23 Proxenou Koromila, GR 54622, Thessaloniki, Greece
⇠ Thessaloniki 40km, ⇢ Polygyros 23km
Reference to Galatista dates back to as early as the end of the 9th century AD, while later, after the Ottoman occupation in around 1500, the village became the property of Ishak Pasa. In the area below Galatista, near the church of Agia Paraskevi, the ancient settlement of Anthemous is thought to have been located. Anthemous was a city that ruled the surrounding region, which was known by the same name. Anthemous was granted by the Persians to Macedonia. King Amintas I then presented the city as a gift to Hippias the tyrant, son of Peisistratos, who refused the offer. The art of icon painting flourished in Galatista during the 19th century. Today, Galatista is a picturesque village with narrow alleys, old houses, and beautiful churches.
• The churches inside the village. Galatista has the greatest number of churches out of all the villages in Halkidiki (St George - 1813, Panagia - 1835, St Demetrios - 1830, St. John Prodromos -1835, St Paraskevi - 1835, St. Nicholas -1842).
• The tower and the 2 watermills in front of the tower, built in the 14th century.
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10km east of Galatista, following the national road Polygyros-Thessaloniki, is the magnificent monastery of “Anastasia Farmakolytria”, founded in 888 AD by the Empress Theophano (wife of Leon VI the Wise).
More about Monastery of Agia Anastasia Farmakolytria (Mountain Halkidiki)
The monastery of Agia Anastasia Farmakolytria (St Anastasia the Curer) stands near Vassilika of Thessaloniki, at the foot of Adrianos, one of Mount Hortiatis’s summits. It was built in 1522 by St Theonas, who later became metropolitan bishop of Thessaloniki. During the Turkish domination, the monastery owned many acres of land but it was destroyed and was rebuilt from scratch in 1830. Today, it belongs to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and honors St Anastasia on the 22nd of December.
T + 30 23960 22440
古城拥有卫城，是神话人物 Acropolis 的故乡，坐落在 Leptokarya 古镇与 Skotina 之间，位于奥林匹斯山上、下部分界线的大裂口入口处。
古城的发掘工作由塞萨洛尼基的 Byzantine Society of Thessaloniki（拜占庭考古学会）于 1954 年开始进行。由于这里时常遭遇洪水，从而形成了 Zilianas 河床。
整个考古区域面积延伸超过 1,500 平方公里（包括古城、卫城和墓地等），周围由河床环抱，古老的悬铃木植被将其覆盖。
- A）一座封闭的卫城（面积约为15 stremmata），形成的时间可追溯至希腊化时代。此处显示出 Grivas torrent（格里瓦斯湍流）河床的踪迹，急流冲刷后在两岸留下的淤泥对古城周围由方体石块砌成的城墙起到了保护作用。
- c）一处古代墓地，可追溯至史前时代至早期希腊时代（ Mykenes 、铁器时代以及早前的历史时代）
⇠ Thessaloniki 70km ⇠ Polygyros 16km
Nea Olynthos lies next to the site of ancient Olynthos (+1.5km) and is the modern counterpart of the Byzantine village of Myriofyto. It is said to have taken its present name from its founder, Olynthos, brother of the Thracian king Rissos. Others claim the name comes from the hero Olynthos, son of the river god Strymon.
• Ancient Olynthos. It was located on the heights east of the present village. The area is fenced and the entrance is at the southwest foot of the heights. The location of the city has been known since the 19th century. The people in the area called it “Pirgos” after a Byzantine tower that was build there to protect the “metochi” of the Mt Athos monastery of Kastamonitou. Only the foundation of this Tower is preserved today, at the southern end of the city. For 100 years Olynthos was the most important city of Halkidiki. Its foundation goes back to mythical times. The city was destroyed in 480 B.C. by the Persians. The evidence from the excavations show that the archaic city, which was a continuation of the prehistoric one, was built on the southern hill. The north hill seems to have been the area of the new settlement of the Chalkideans. The accuracy of the city plan of Olynthos helps us understand how the Ippodamio city planning system was applied. Although the ruins are remarkable, the findings of the excavations are exhibited at the Museums of Thessaloniki and Polygyros.
• The ruins of the Byzantine church of St Nicholas, a structure of the 10th or 11th century.
• North of Olynthos, at the site known as Mariana, there is a fortified tower dating from the 14th century, built by the Docheiariou Monastery on Mt. Athos.
• About 7km from the village is the site of the ancient city of Mikyverna, the port of Olynthos, which must have been destroyed when Olynthos was laid waste by Phillip II in 348 B.C.
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Walk through the ancient roads of Olynthos and admire the perfection of the architecture.
More about Ancient town Olynthos
The area was constantly inhabited since the Neolithic Age. According to mythology, the town was built by the brother of Olynthos, the son of the mythic King of Thrace, Strymonas. Olynthos was killed by a lion and his brother built the town to honour his brother’s name. However, the linguists insist that olynthos is the name of the wild fig tree, which is in abundance in the area, and the town was named after it.
Around 650 BC refugees from Pieria, hunted by the Macedonian army, settled in the area. The Persian army destroyed the town in 479 BC. and offered the region to their allies from Evia (Halkida). Later on, Olynthos joined the Athenian Alliance and then the Community of Halkida (Evia). From this alliance the town gained great profits (mainly financial). So, it became the capital of the Euboan colonies in Halkidiki and was able to support a huge army (about 20.000 soldiers). During the Peloponnesian War the area grew more, had its own monetary unit and provided protection to all the Euboan refugees in Greece.
When the Macedonian State faded, the army of Olynthos conquered its territories and reached the ancient town of Pella (389 BC). In 382 BC, after a three year-long siege, the Spartans captured the town and destroyed the Euboan Community. Nevertheless, the town quickly recovered and became wealthy and powerful again. In 348 BC the Macedonian Army, under the command of Philip II, conquered it and destroyed it. The town was never again inhabited and its destruction is remembered as one of the darkest moments of the entire ancient world.
⇠ Thessaloniki 108km ⇠ Polygyros 52km
Stagira is a Greek village situated at the foot of the Argirolofos hill. The village stands approximately 8km southwest of the ancient Stagira, the birthplace of Aristotle. The village’s former name was Sidirokafsia and dates back from the Byzantine Era. The area is mentioned already in the beginning of the 10th century AC, when the mines were in full operation. Later on, monasteries from Mount Athos took over their management. From the 15th century and through all the years of the Ottoman Occupation, the mining and elaboration of the minerals became more intense, mainly when the village was under the control of Madem Agas. In the 16th century a castle was built, of which there are still remainders to be seen. During mint century the village also had its own mint.
• Aristotle’s park. The Theme park is located in a most beautiful area with a marvellous view towards the gulf of Ierissos and the whole peninsula of Athos. When the weather is good you can see some of the monasteries on Mount Athos using a telescope. It also includes a series of other instruments which when used properly will show the phenomena of nature. All of this is dedicated to the famous philosopher and his work called “the Natural”. The instruments include a prism, optical discs, sounding bars, a compass, sundial and pendulum – all illustrating important phenomena studied by the great philosopher.
• The fortress complex, of which only three partly ruined towers exist today as well as the ruins of the public bath that Ishak Pasha constructed in the 15th century.
• The central temple dedicated to the “Birthday of the Virgin Mary”, built in 1814. Also interesting is the small chapel dedicated to the “Virgin Mary the Spilotissa” built in rock.
• The ruins of Sidirocaussia. Many ruins exist around the hill of St. Demetrios (the site of the bath).
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Walk in the evergreen paths and admire a panoramic view.
More about Ancient town Stagira
The birthplace of the philosopher Aristotle was a colony of Andros, founded in 655 B.C. The first name of the city was Orthagoria. Ally, initially of the Athenians and later of the Spartans, the city was occupied by Philippos in 349 B.C., after the destruction of Olynthos. Philippos, however, rebuilt the city in order to honour the great philosopher, tutor of Alexander the Great. When Aristotle died, his fellow-citizens transported his bones to Stagira and set up a monument. The excavations in the region began in 1990. The most impressive piece that was brought to light is the wall, at the top of the hill that was built in the classic years. The different ways of construction can be distinguished. The wall determines the western limits of the ancient city, surrounded by the sea. The powerful fortification supplemented round and square towers and ramparts that connected with heavy scales. At the top of the hill also appears the relic of the citadel. At the part behind, between the hills, is the well-maintained remainder from some beautiful, spacious public building, with a gallery and a monumental facade with pillars.
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was born in Stagira. He was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Platon and teacher of Alexander the Great. He is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Kassander.
More about Aristotle’s park
Aristotle’s park is located in Stagira. The Theme park includes a series of other instruments which when used properly will show the phenomena of nature such as: Solar, Lens, Pentaphone, Optical Discs, Pendulum, Water turbine, Inertia spheres, Parabolic reflectors and Telescopes. Aristotle’s Park is an excellent place to learn about activities and interactive games. When the weather is good, you are able to see some of the monasteries on Mouth Athos, using the telescopes.
在 Ancient Pydna（彼得那古城）的西侧和今天 Makrigialos 的西南侧坐落着希腊最大的史前定居点之一。
1992 年启动的第 16 届史前及古典研究学会发掘工作，将这一史前遗迹重现光明。
整个发掘工作覆盖面积为 60 平方公里，而整个定居区域的面积则估测在 500 平方公里左右。
The Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles is one of the four Macedonian tombs of Lefkadia, built along the ancient road connecting the town of Mieza with Pella, the capital of the Macedonian Kingdom. The pottery discovered inside the tomb and the prosopography of the deceased indicate a date from the late third to the middle of the second centuries BC. Although the smallest tomb of the group, it is distinguished by its ornate interior. The tomb belonged to the family of Aristophanes, of which five generations were buried here. Their names are inscribed inside the rectangular niches set in two superimposed rows along the walls.
The tomb consists of a narrow ante-chamber and a rectangular burial chamber oriented north-south. The burial chamber was entered from the south through a double door. The ante-chamber has a flat ceiling and its walls have painted representations of a sprinkler and an altar. Over the door leading into the burial chamber are the names of the first two deceased, Lyson and Kallikles sons of Aristophanes. The burial chamber has twenty-two niches, of which seventeen received the ashes and grave gifts of deceased members of the family. The trompe-l'oeil Ionic antae give the impression of a true peristyle inside a garden. A continuous garland of leaves, pomegranates and ribbons crowns the peristyle, while the tympana on the short sides have paintings of weapons like those often placed as grave gifts - helmets, swords and two different types of Macedonian shields. The vividness of the colours and good state of preservation of the wall-paintings are due to the fact that the earthen tumulus covering the tomb was not removed after the monument's discovery, thus keeping the temperature and humidity inside the tomb stable. The stylistic similarities between the paintings of this tomb and the Second Pompeian Style indicate the close contacts between Hellenistic Greece and Republican Rome; this particular style (dubbed 'Architectural Style' by the archaeologist Stella Miller) may be the beginning or may have inspired the Second Pompeian Style.
The tomb was discovered by chance in 1942 and was excavated by Charalambos Makaronas who published a brief report. It was fully studied by Stella Miller. The monument is closed to the public in order to preserve the stable conditions which allowed for its remarkable preservation. A metal shelter was built over the tomb in 1999 for additional protection.
It is one of the biggest museums in the world for Byzantine heritage, housing an impressive 2900 artifacts of the early Christian period and the middle and late Byzantine period –its permanent exhibition. The museum accommodates temporary exhibitions from all over the world, while continuing to organize a variety of special educational activities.
The Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki（塞萨洛尼基考古博物馆）将文化与学习汇聚一体，面向所有人开放。
Manoli Andronikou 大街 6 号
电话：+30 2310 830538
传真：+30 2310 861306
1977 年，Manolis Andronikos 教授与其同事在中马其顿大区伊马夏州 Vergina village（维尔吉纳村）发掘了一座巨大的古墓，成为 20 世纪希腊最重要的考古发现。现维尔吉纳（Ancient Aigai——古埃格）坐落在 Pieria（皮埃里亚）山脚下，曾是古马其顿王国的第一个都城 Ancient Aigai（古埃格）的所在地。在皇家陵墓的发掘点建起了一座现代风格的顶盖，顶盖下方为墓穴的主入口，并且陈列了在墓葬中发现的主要文物。联合国教科文组织已将此处评定为世界文化遗产，这里独特的考古发现对世界文明进程的研究有着广泛巨大的影响。
从公元前 3000 年起，这一区域就持续有人居住，这里还有一直延续到罗马时代的 Aigai（埃格）古城的废墟，计有一处卫城、一处宫殿、一处剧场，大量的神殿和住宅建筑，以及一片包括数以百计墓穴的广阔墓地。
文物陈列的上盖是大古墓的外部结构，一座人工建起的土墩，古墓的地下建筑则从 1997 年 11 月至今陈列着在其中发现的墓穴和珍宝。土墩结构之下包括了三座马其顿王国的皇家墓穴：腓力二世的完整墓穴（II 号墓），墓穴带有一幅描绘狩猎场景的湿壁画。还有一座被称为王子之墓的墓穴（III 号墓）亦保存完整，可能属于腓力二世的孙子亚历山大四世以及他的儿子亚历山大大帝，另外一座是建于公元前三世纪的皇家墓穴（IV 号墓），已被盗墓者破坏，如今仅存废墟。
参观者还可看到一座被称为“Persephone 之墓” 的家族墓穴（I 号墓），其石棺已经被盗，其湿壁画描绘了冥王 Hades 劫持 Persephone 的场景，临近石棺还有一座已剩废墟的 Heroon 英雄祠，可能是用来祭祀毗邻埋藏的皇室成员。展品中有两件为金制的瓮罐，存有腓力二世和他一位妻子的骸骨，还有皇室死者佩戴的金色花环，其中两件为橡木，一件为长春花。展品中还有一件十分罕见的金色与紫色刺绣的布块，包裹着皇室妻子的骸骨，随葬的还有妻子的金质王冠，工艺独特，另有两张象希腊人娱乐与进行研讨时使用的躺椅，还有腓力二世的武器和铠甲，皇室家族娱乐与研讨时使用的珍贵器物，以及“王子”的银制瓮罐。
占据都城最北面山头的纪念建筑群富丽堂皇，占地面积达 60,000 平方米。徘徊在都城的商业和制造中心，希腊语称之为市集（ayorá），事实上，这里是古代世界规模最大的市集。这一巨大的建筑综合体占地面积达 70,000 平方米，包含商铺、作坊、行政办公场所以及存放都城档案记录的场所。市集的主干道与都城的港口相连接，今天站在废墟上这一切依然清晰可见。
古市集依照 Hippodamus 的著名规划而建造（Hippodamian grid plan ）：对城市的街区、石砌的街道和辅道、供水和排污系统都进行了精确的划定。展现了佩拉先进的城市基础设施与城市设计。这些两层的住宅呈现多立克和爱奥尼克的建筑风格，让人不禁联想古城当时一派繁荣的景象。
那些曾经用来装饰市政大厦的精美马赛克地板装饰画必定会让您赞叹不已 — 其中最著名的当属描绘 the Abduction of Helen（诱拐海伦）、 Rapture（被提）、 the Amazonomachy （阿玛宗之战）（the battle of Amazons——与阿玛宗人的战斗）以及 the Deer Hunt（猎鹿）的马赛克装饰画。您可以前往 New Archaeological Museum of Pella（新佩拉考古博物馆）一睹这些装饰地板（被视为马其顿最重要的一组马赛克艺术）的精湛艺术。
陵墓结构的外部成土墩状；内部存放了在陵墓中发现的珍宝，1997 年 11 月开始对外展出。
电话：+30 23310 92347
优惠套票：全价：8 欧元，优惠价：4 欧元
佩拉的新博物馆建于 2006 - 2009 年之间。新馆的建设与展品的陈列都获得了 Third Community Support Framework（第三社会支持框架）的支持。
第一组展群描绘的是佩拉的日常生活。其中最为重要的展品是 Houses of Dionysus（狄俄倪索斯之屋）的马赛克地板，以及 Houses of Wall Plasters（Wall Plasters之屋）的 the Abduction of Helen（诱拐海伦）马赛克地板。此次发掘对了解佩拉的日常生活提拱了大量信息（家具、模具和服装的修复等）。
第四组主图展群是从佩拉古城的墓地发现的文物。埋藏的年代从铜器时代、铁器时代、几何与古朴时代（公元前 9 世纪至 6 世纪），古典时代（公元前 5 世纪至 4 世纪）以及希腊化时代（公元前 3 世纪和 2 世纪）。出土的物品对当地人的语言（希腊语中的多利斯方言）以及丧葬习俗等提供了信息。